FANDOM


Astra Militarum Icon

The icon of the Astra Militarum.

The Paragonian Regiments also referred to as the Paragon Regiments, are regiments of the Astra Militarum raised from the moons and lunar colonies of the Paragon System. Commonly designated as Paragon, the system's capital world is, in fact, the most important moon of the great gas giant Paragon VI, locally known as "Mater Maxima."

Officially classified as an Industrial World, with the resources and population of an entire star system at hand, Paragon's wealth and industrial output easily rival that of a Hive World or even a less important Forge World. The planet maintains close ties with the Adeptus Mechanicus which allows it to equip most of its Astra Militarum troops as either mechanised infantry or armoured regiments.

While the Paragonian Regiments cannot boast as illustrious a history as the Armageddon Steel Legion, their actions brought stability to those regions of the Segmentum Pacificus and Segmentum Tempestus weakened by the demands of the Macharian Crusade. Therefore, the Paragonian Regiments are considered rising stars within the hierarchy of the Imperial Guard.

Regimental History

As an important Industrial World, Paragon's main contribution to the defence of the Imperium of Man has always been its manufactured goods and the strategic resources extracted from Paragon's extensive asteroid belts. At some unspecified moment in its history, the Departmento Munitorum increased Paragon's Tithe Grade and began raising Astra Militarum regiments.

Since Paragonian society is very organised and disciplined, the raising of new regiments did not cause further strain on the society, as Paragon mostly "promoted" existing or newly-created regiments of the Planetary Defence Forces to service within the Imperial Guard. By the dawn of the 41st Millennium, military service within the Astra Militarum was considered an honour on Paragon rather than an obligation.

The common troops are recruited from the multitudes of Paragon's working-class -- foundry workers, miners, artisans and manufactoria labourers who preferred to risk their lives on the battlefield rather than toil their lives away. As is the case on many worlds, to guarantee a high intake of volunteers, the Departmento Munitorum also negotiated an Imperial pardon for those criminals willing to enlist.

In order to avoid perpetuating clan-rivalries, squads and crews within the Paragonian Regiments are thoroughly mixed, their expertise in a variety of areas often able to tip an engagement in their favour.

In contrast, the officers are all drawn from the high nobility of Paragon's manufacturing clans -- which are theoretically exempt from paying the Imperial Tithe but do so as a matter of tradition. In fact, all Paragonian noblemen benefit from extensive fencing lessons in their youth and practice a variety of sports that allow them to serve with a minimum of adaptation.

Notable Campaigns

Most of the battle-honours of the Paragonian Regiments are contemporary to the Macharian Crusade as it was during that conflict that Paragon was called upon to fill the military gaps in the Imperium's exterior borders.

  • Dentares Suppression (Unknown Date.M41) - As part of a wider campaign within the stellar bodies of the  Dentares Belt, several Pargonian regiments are deployed to the Indrani Agri-Cluster to counter the incursions of Aeldari pirates.
  • Kalidar War (395.M41) - Alongside a small Crusade of Black Templars Space Marines, several Paragonian regiments were deployed to the Industrial World of Kalidar in order to save it from the depredations of WAAAGH! Gratzdakka. However, the Imperial battlegroup was severely delayed by Warp Storms and other turbulences so that by the time these reinforcements arrived on Kalidar, the Orks of the Blood Axes klan had considerably strengthened their grip on the planet and its vital Lorelei crystal deposits. Once on the ground, Kalidar's hostile environment claimed dozens of lives daily while the Orks seemed to be forewarned of the army's movements. Captain-General Iskhandrian's first offensive ended in disaster when it ran into a carefully laid ambush which badly wounded the battlegroup. Only when the Imperial commanders recognised that the Orks possessed a powerful witch -- the most skilled Warphead encountered by the forces of the Imperium to that date -- did the Astra Militarum regain the initiative by mounting a desperate and secret suicide mission centred on the Baneblade Mars Triumphant of the 7th Paragonian Super-Heavy Company. However, this mission was only a diversion intended to mask the combined redeployment of the Black Templars and the supporting vessels of the Imperial Navy, a movement the Orks were unable to foresee, so concentrated were they on finding the Mars Triumphant. Through great sacrifice, the campaign ended with the annihilation of WAAAGH! Gratzdakka and its leader.
  • Geratomran Reconquest (398.M41) - Facing a series of revolts and rebellions in the Chiros Sector, the Imperium combined several pre-existing Astra Militarum battlegroups to make a bloody example of the latest world to turn from the Emperor's Light: the Industrial World of Geratomro. What was intended as a show of force to cull a planetary population soon became a full-fledged war when the presence of Heretic Astartes of the Emperor's Children and elements of an unidentified Traitor Titan Legion are confirmed to be present on Geratomro. In the end, the Imperial troops narrowly succeeded in preventing a full-fledged daemonic incursion which would have put countless worlds at risk of falling to Chaos.
  • Crushing of the Kieldar Rebellion (956.M41) - When the rulers of the Imperial world of Kieldar declared their formal secession from the Imperium of Man and slaughtered all Imperial officials on the planet, a powerful battlegroup of the Astra Militarum was tasked with bringing the world back into the Imperial fold. The Paragonian Regiments fought alongside such illustrious units as the Cadian Shock Troops, the Catachan Jungle Fighters, the Elysian Drop Troops, the Harakoni Warhawks, the Mordian Iron Guard, the Tallarn Desert Raiders and the Vostroyan Firstborn. Lesser known worlds such as Aegis, Athanos, Bannan, Birmingham, Jjojos, K'phrani, Loriar, Morax, Neocassan, Pintax, and Rassiosan also contributed to the campaign which subjugated the world in only 93 Terran days.

Regimental Combat Doctrine

The men of the Paragonian Regiments are recognised as excellent tankers. The wealth of their home system allows them to field considerable numbers of armoured vehicles, including a fair number of super-heavy tank companies. As a result, the Paragonians' way of war relies heavily on the use of armoured formations.

The Paragonians favour armoured assaults or deep range mechanised raiding forces, with regiments of mechanised infantry or regular infantry serving as close support for their tanks. When available, Paragonian armoured formations will always comprise at least one super-heavy tank such as a Baneblade to support the standard Leman Russ Battle Tanks that comprise most of their armoured formations.

Since the Paragonians' training regime has been heavily influenced by the doctrines of the Cadian Shock Troops, the Paragonian Regiments of the Astra Militarum are characterised by a mixture of units with multiple tactical abilities, while dedicated assault formations such as the "Lucky Eights" -- a super-heavy tank company compromised only of Stormlords -- are the exception rather than the rule.

Regimental Uniforms

The Paragonian Regiments favour a rich vermillion as the standard colour for their uniforms. Slight variations of cut to the uniform denote the wearer's branch of the service: armoured regiment, mechanised infantry or infantry. While both tankers and mechanised infantry are held in high regard, the common infantryman suffers from a lack of respect by other Paragonians in comparison to those who serve in a super heavy tank company or armoured regiment.

The hot and damp confines of a battle tank often lead tankers to work in their tank tops and trousers, shedding the top layer of their uniforms. Officers, in particular, prefer to leave the heavy but impractical breastplate and sash of their uniforms in their locker during combat actions or for any other duty than formal banquets.

On such formal occasions, however, each officer meticulously polishes his black boots and silver breastplate, removes every single stain from their white gauntlets and shaves their usual stubble. As members of Paragon's nobility, each officer carries an elegant duellist sword or other blades in addition to their regulation sidearm.

Notable Paragonian Regiments

Infantry Regiments

  • 23rd Paragonian Foot - The 23rd Paragonian Foot is a veteran of the Dentares Suppression and the Kalidar War. It was badly mauled on Kalidar and fought only at half-strength during the Geratomran Reconquest
  • 84th Paragonian Foot - Deployed alongside the 23rd Paragonian Foot during the Dentares Suppression, the 84th was folded into the 62nd Mechanised Infantry in the wake of the Kalidar War.
  • 477th Paragonian Foot - The 477th Paragonian Foot was raised in 396.M41 as part of the Second Gulem Recovery Force, only one standard year after Paragon had already been called upon to provide men and materiel for the Kalidar War. Such were the needs of the Departmento Munitorum that the 477th Paragonian Foot was raised at twice the strength of previous regiments. Since its inception, the 477th had also provided accompanying platoons for the Stormlords of the 8th Paragonian Super Heavy Tank Company.
  • Tempestus Scions, "Black Suns" - The "Black Suns" are Paragon's most elite warriors, temporarily allotted to the Second Gulem Recovery Force. They also saw action during the Geratomran Reconquest.

Mechanised Infantry Regiments

  • 63rd Paragonian Mechanised - The 63rd Paragonian Mechanised Regiment was raised on Paragon in 395.M41 as part of the reinforcement for Battlegroup Kalidar. The regiment suffered heavy losses during the Kalidar War and stood only at 26% readiness on the eve of the Geratomran Reconquest.

Artillery Regiments

  • 109th Paragonian Artillery - The 109th Paragonian Artillery was raised alongside the 477th Paragonian Foot and the 84th Paragonian Armoured as part of the Second Gulem Recovery Force.

Armoured Regiments

  • 42nd Paragonian Armoured - The ill-fated 42nd Armoured Regiment was one of the regiments raised as reinforcements for the Dentares Battlegroup in preparation for the prosecution of the Kalidar War. While the bulk of the 42nd was of Paragonian origin, its officers were drawn from depleted regiments of the Dentares Suppression. The 42nd Paragonian Armoured was badly mauled during the infamous Kostoval Rout and spent the rest of the Kalidar War understrength. The regiment was eventually disbanded and its number held in reserve for reuse during a future raising.
  • 84th Paragonian Armoured - The 84th Paragonian Armoured was raised in 396.M41 as part of the Second Gulem Recovery Force.
  • 322nd Paragonian Armoured- The severely depleted 322nd Paragonian Armoured is a veteran of the fight against the Aeldari. At the start of the Gerotomran Reconquest, the regiment was listed as barely battle-worthy, at only 29% battle-readiness.

Super Heavy Tank Companies

  • 7th Paragonian Super Heavy Company - The Seventh Paragonian Super Heavy Company is a veteran of several campaigns, including the Dentares Suppression, the Kalidar War and the Geratomran Reconquest.
    • Ostrakhan's Rebirth - Ostrakhan's Rebirth is the 7th's only Hellhammer and acted as Honoured Captain Hannick's command tank. Ostrakhan's Rebirth was badly damaged during the Ork raid on the Imperial encampment during the Kalidar War but was repaired in time to participate in the Battle for Hive Meradon. The vehicle was damaged a second time on Geratomro but was again restored to full operational status.
    • Mars Triumphant - The Baneblade Mars Triumphant was the longest-serving tank within the 7th Company, having been constructed on holy Mars itself in 639.M39. This gave it a special place of veneration amongst the Tech-priests and Enginseers tasked with its maintenance. As a vehicle of the Mars Pattern, the Baneblade carried several of the most advanced technologies known to the Imperium, which made it popular amongst its crew. Mars Triumphant was lost in a glorious sacrifice to destroy the enemy Psy-Gargant threatening Imperial victory on Kalidar
    • Artemen Ultrus - Artemen Ultrus is the 7th Company's second Baneblade and has faithfully served its commander, Honoured Lieutenant Marteken, in multiple conflicts.
    • Lux Imperator - The Shadowsword Lux Imperator is the 7th Company's dedicated Titan-killer, a role it fulfilled both during the Dentares Suppression and the Geratomran Reconquest. The vehicle carries a tumultuous past, having been captured by Orks on Kalidar and pressed into service against the forces of the Astra Militarum. The Shadowsword's Machine Spirit took offence at this treatment and slew the Orks handling it. However, after the humiliation, it became increasingly unreliable in battle. Only by slaying a worthy foe, in this case, a corrupted Warlord-class Titan in service to Chaos was Lux Imperator’s soul finally soothed. Lux Imperator’s involvement in the Battle for Maggor's Seat proved decisive as it destroyed the Warp Rift caused by the foul rituals of the Emperor's Children before the daemonic hordes of Slaanesh could overrun Geratomro.
    • Cortein's Honour - The Baneblade Cortein's Honour is the youngest vehicle within 7th Company, commissioned in the wake of the Kalidar War and the loss of Mars Triumphant. Its name was chosen by its first commander, the recently-promoted Honoured Lieutenant Bannick, to commemorate the courage of his uncle and mentor Honoured Lieutenant Cortein, whom he had served under during the Kalidar War. The Geratomran Reconquest was Cortein's Honour’s first deployment.
  • 8th Paragonian Super Heavy Company "The Lucky Eights" - The "Lucky Eights" are a specialised Super Heavy Company comprised solely of Stormlord super-heavy assault tanks. The "Lucky Eights" have earned their nickname due to their seemingly extraordinary luck, as since its founding the 8th Super Heavy Company has not suffered a single casualty despite being deployed in several hard-fought campaigns. The "Lucky Eights" formed the heart of the Second Gulem Recovery Force.
    • Righteous Vengeance - The Righteous Vengeance is Honoured Captain Lo Parrigar's command tank.
    • Saint Joseph
    • War Forged

Notable Paragonian Regiments Personnel

  • Warmaster Ban Lo Kism Verkerigen - Veteran of both the Dentares Suppression and the Kalidar War, the then- General Ban Lo Kism Verkerigen served under Captain-General Iskhandrian at the head of the combined Paragonian Regiments, a post he kept throughout the following campaigns. Verkerigen's rise to higher office began in the wake of the Geratomran Reconquest and Iskandrian's loss of favour with the Imperial High Command.
  • General Maden Heldor Lo Basteen - General Maden Heldor Lo Basteen was the commander-in-chief of the Second Gulem Recovery Force which was made up of the 477th Paragonian Foot, the 84th Paragonian Armoured and the 109th Paragonian Artillery as well as the Tempestus Scions of the Black Suns and the 8th Paragonian Super Heavy Company. General Lo Basteen brought the rebellious world of Genthus back into Imperial Compliance in a little less than four standard weeks. General Lo Basteen continued to command these same regiments during the Geratomran Reconquest. 
  • Lord Colonel Bannick Vardamon Vor Anselm Lo Bannick - Brother to the Clan Auditor of Clan Bannick and uncle to Colaron Vor Artem Lo Bannick, Lord Colonel Bannick was an esteemed military figure within his clan. Having fought for more than 20 Terran years in the Astra Militarum, Lord Colonel Bannick Vor Anselm Lo Bannick is a figure of great authority within the Paragonian Regiments. It was thanks to his efforts that his nephew was accepted within the Imperial Guard and again through his efforts that Colaron Lo Bannick made peace with his cousin, Jonas Lo Bannick. As a high-ranking noble and experienced officer, the Lord Colonel was one of Captain-General Iskhandrian's many advisors during the Gertomran Reconquest. With the near failure of this campaign, Iskhandrian's loss of favour with Segmentum authorities left the generals under him vying for power, especially since the rights of colonisation for Geratomro had been given to the Paragonian Regiments.
  • Colonel Gueptera Assis Sholana - Veteran of the Dentares Suppression, Colonel Gueptera Assis Sholana was selected as commander-in-chief for the newly-raised 42nd Paragonian Armoured Regiment in 393.M41. While not a Paragonian, Colonel Sholana was deemed a fitting choice to lead this new regiment. Where other officers were hopeless dogmatists, Sholana was of a different kind. One of his quirks was to invite his subalterns to "informal chats" rather than rely upon the decorum of official convocations and hearings. With the heavy losses sustained by the 42nd on Kalidar, Sholana's main concern was the morale of his regiment and that of the wider army, which is why he agreed to promote Lieutenant Bannick to the 7th Super Heavy Company rather than having him shot for disobeying a direct order by ordering the rear-guard to retreat during the Kostoval Rout. An honourable man, Colonel Sholana offered to resign in the wake of that disastrous retreat of the Kalidar War, but his request was denied by the campaign's commander, Captain-General Iskhandrian of Atraxia. Colonel Sholana succeeded in maintaining the 42nd as a cohesive fighting force throughout the entire campaign on Kalidar, but the 42nd Paragonian Armoured Regiment was disbanded in the wake of the Kalidar War, and his current disposition is unknown.
  • Colonel Vertor Lo Strabannick - Commander of the 477th Paragonian Foot.
  • Honoured Captain Colaron Vor Artem Lo Bannick - Heir to the prestigious position of Clan Auditor of Clan Bannick, Colaron Vor Artem Lo Bannick was promised a life of wealth and luxury. Colaron was even due to marry Kaithalar Beyn Lo Turannigen, which would have effectively propelled him to the head of Clan Turannigen and made him one of the most influential people on Paragon. But this was before he was challenged to an illegal duel by his own cousin Turparillo. Having fallen in love with Colaron's bride-to-be, Turparillo forced the outcome of the duel, almost throwing himself on his cousin's blade. Having become a kin-slayer, Colaron's guilt at his cousin's death led him to enlist in the Astra Militarum in order to escape Imperial justice. Initially attached to the newly-raised 42nd Paragonian Armoured Regiment, Colaron Vor Artem Lo Bannick served as a lieutenant and was given command of his own tank, the Leman Russ Indomitable Fury. From the start of the Kalidar War, it was clear that Colaron sought redemption by facing the enemies of the Emperor. His wish for death in the Emperor's service was almost granted when Indomitable Fury was destroyed during the disastrous Kostoval Rout. However, Lieutenant Bannick survived the destruction of his tank and successfully rejoined the Imperial rear-guard covering the army's retreat against the Orks of WAAAGH! Gratzdakka. Taking command of the doomed retreat, Lieutenant Bannick expertly commanded his new troops, a well-timed shot of a Leman Russ Battle Cannon immobilising the towering Psy-Gargant which was decimating the Imperial troops. With the main threat neutralized, the rear-guard and the retreating main advance safely retreated. This first act of heroism nearly cost Bannick his life as during his progress through the battlefield a seal of his Rebreather had broken and he had contracted a very deadly local disease known as "dustlung." Fortunately for the young lieutenant, a group of Tech-Adepts of the Adeptus Mechanicus believed him blessed by the Omnissiah and fated to join the crew of the Baneblade Mars Triumphant and granted him access to the highly expensive lungwash-treatment which saved his life. Bannick's actions and miraculous survival were made into a heroic tale by Imperial propaganda, ending with his transfer to the prestigious Seventh Paragonian Super Heavy Company whose actions would so decisively impact the outcome of the Kalidar War. Serving under one of his great-uncles, the immensely competent Honoured Lieutenant Marken Cortein Lo Bannick, Colaron would learn everything he needed to become a great officer himself. After Cortein's and Mars Triumphant’s glorious sacrifice during the Battle for Orktown, Colaron Vor Artem Lo Bannick was promoted to the rank of Honoured Lieutenant and given command of a newly forged Baneblade which Bannick chose to baptise Cortein's Honour. Seeing the promise in this young officer, the 7th's commander, Honoured Captain Hannick, gradually came to rely on Bannick, training him to become his replacement as the company commander. During the Geratomran Reconquest, Cortein's Honour again proved its worth, allowing the Imperial troops to close on the planetary capital of Magor's Seat by crushing enemy strongholds and successfully eliminating an ambushing force of Emperor's Children Predator Annihilators. With the presence of Chaos Space Marines and elements of the Traitor Titan Legions confirmed on Geratomro, Honoured Lieutenant Bannick and part of his crew were transferred to the Shadowsword Lux Imperator whose Machine Spirit had become increasingly unsettled and needed to be placated. Together, Bannick and Lux Imperator were credited with the destruction of an enemy Warlord-class Titan but were soon beleaguered by heretic Astartes on foot. Rescued by the timely intervention of the Black Templars commanded by Sword-Brother Adelhard, Lux Imperator and the Black Templars confronted the enemy commanders as they were conducting a foul ritual to open a Warp rift and allow a legion of Slaaneshi daemons to overrun the Imperial forces. While the Emperor's Champion duelled the daemon leading the ritual, a direct shot from Lux Imperator’s Volcano Cannon caused the opening Warp rift to collapse in on itself and prevent the daemonic incursion. Having earned another hard victory, Honoured Lieutenant Bannick was selected to succeed Honoured Captain Hannick at the head of the 7th Paragonian Heavy Company after Hannicak died of the dustlung he had contracted on Kalidar.
  • Honoured Captain Kandar Vor Ostrakhan Lo Hannick - Hannick was the commander of the Hellhammer Ostrakhan's Rebirth. Honoured Captain Hannick was the commander-in-chief of the 7th Pargonian Super Heavy Company during his formation's most glorious campaigns such as the Dentares Suppression, the Kalidar War and the Geratomran Reconquest. A competent Tank Commander, Hannick was a good judge of characters and sensible enough to allow those clearly more gifted than him, such as Honoured Lieutenant Cortein, enough leeway to act as they saw fit, often turning the tide of battle in the Imperium's favour. While deployed on Kalidar, following a malfunction of his rebreather, Hannick contracted the local affliction known as "dustlung" a pernicious disease where microscopic sand-particles gradually attack the subject's lung-tissues until he eventually drowns in his own blood. By the time of the Geratomran Reconquest, Hannick was dying from this affliction, his muscular frame frequently wracked by violent fits of coughing. Permanently out of breath, the Honoured Captain began carrying a cane with him to support his weight and retched blood several times per day. Despite his grim prognosis, the Honoured Captain still fought in the first lines of the Geratomran Reconquest. Hannick died three solar days after victory was assured on Geratomro, the dustlung finally claiming his life in the medicae bay of an Imperial frigate.
  • Honoured Captain Ardoman Kosigian Lo Parrigar - As commander of the 8th Paragonian Super Heavy Company, the "Lucky Eights", Honoured Captain Ardoman Kosigian Lo Parrigar guided his men through the campaigns on Gulem and Geratomro
  • Captain Lubin Lo Santelligen - Santelligen was an officer in the 477th Paragonian Foot and the commander of the regiment's 16th Company. During the Geratomran Reconquest, Captain Lo Santelligen was tasked with the capture of a fortified position held by seditious troops. Since the enemy fielded a Destroyer Tank Hunter, he requested the support of the 7th Super Heavy Company. However, the company was ambushed by Geratomran tanks and only Bannick's engine, Cortein's Honour, was left to support the attack.
  • Honoured Lieutenant Marken Cortein Lo Bannick - Last commander of the ancient Baneblade Mars Triumphant, Honoured Lieutenant Cortein was an Imperial hero and is generally considered the greatest military mind in the entire history of Clan Bannick. While his noble sacrifice at the end of the Kalidar War is his most famous action, in his more than 30 standard years of service Honoured Lieutenant Cortein and his crew fought in campaigns like the Dentares Suppression, earning a victory for the Emperor. In what would be his last campaign, Honoured Lieutenant Cortein brought in his nephew, Colaron Lo Bannick, and trained him to become a great tanker. It was in memory of this man that Colaron would name his own tank Cortein's Honour.
  • Honoured Lieutenant Marteken - Marteken was the commander of the Baneblade Artemen Ultrus. In the wake of the Geratomran Reconquest, Honoured Lieutenant Marteken is now the longest-serving tank commander within the 7th Paragonian Super Heavy Company. While an excellent tanker, Marteken lacks the necessary resolve to command his own unit and was therefore passed over for promotion when the command of the 7th Company was ready to change hands.
  • Lieutenant Jonas Artem Lo Bannick - Cousin to the heroic Colaron Lo Bannick, Jonas Artem Lo Bannick was a lieutenant at the head of his own Infantry Platoon within the 477th Paragonian Foot. In the wake of the Gulem Recovery, Jonas' platoon was permanently attached to the 8th Paragonian Super Heavy Company and tasked with the Stormlords' close defence. The two cousins would eventually reunite on Geratomro during the Geratomran Reconquest. After initial tensions, the two men worked well together, Jonas' actions contributing to the defence of the firing position of the army's only two Shadowswords from an attack by Emperor's Children Chaos Space Marines.
  • Lieutenant Lazlo Gratimar Lo Kalligen - Foster-brother to Colaron Vor Artem Lo Bannick, Lazlo's fate is an exemplar of that suffered by countless other minor scions of the powerful fabricator-clans of Paragon. While his birthright as a member of the Kalligen clan elevated him above the commoners, not being the heir to one of his clan's positions of influence made him at best a political bargaining chip in the clan's dealings with others. Like so many others, Lazlo Lo Kalligen enlisted voluntarily for an officer's position in the Paragonian Planetary Defence Forces. Only through sheer bad luck was his brevet transformed into a permanent position within the Astra Militarum when his initial regiment was transformed into the 42nd Paragonian Armoured where he would serve alongside his foster-brother. Lieutenant Lazlo Gratimar Lo Kalligen was declared MIA in the wake of the disastrous Kostoval Rout on Kalidar.

Sources

  • Warhammer 40,000: Rulebook (5th Edition), pp. 142-143
  • Baneblade (Novel) by Guy Haley
  • Shadowsword (Novel) by Guy Haley
  • Stormlord (Short Story) by Guy Haley
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.