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El Rifle Bólter, más conocido como Bólter a secas, y sus variantes, son algunas de las armas de mano más poderosas del Imperio de la Humanidad. Es un poderoso rifle de asalto que dispara proyectiles cinéticos explosivos, capaces de atravesar o reventar a un enemigo. El Bólter es sinónimo de Adeptus Astartes, y con razón. Sin embargo, aunque los Marines Espaciales son sus principales usuarios, el Bólter puede hallarse en organizaciones militares de todo el Imperio. Los Marines Espaciales del Caos de las Legiones Traidoras recibieron sus últimos suministros de Bólteres antes de la Herejía de Horus, y en consecuencia utilizan variantes más antiguas que las disponibles para los Marines Espaciales Leales de hoy en día.
El Bólter es un arma antipersonal de alcance medio que se encuentra entre la Pistola Bólter, más ligera, y el Bólter Pesado, más efectivo. El Bólter estándar puede ser empleado con facilidad por un Astartes, pero las Hermanas de Batalla del Adepta Sororitas y otros soldados humanos deben utilizar modelos más pequeños.
Tanto para los Marines Espaciales como para las Hermanas de Batalla, el Bólter es un arma creada por el Emperador para llevar su ira a los enemigos de la Humanidad. Cada Astartes porta un Bólter amorosamente fabricado a mano por los Artificieros del Arsenal de su Capítulo o de uno de los Mundos Forja del Adeptus Mechanicus. Los Tecnosacerdotes o Artificieros llevan a cabo rituales especiales en cada etapa de su construcción, e incluso el mantenimiento diario del arma por su propietario Astartes tiene un aire de devoción religiosa. Se sabe que los Bólteres utilizados por los Marines Espaciales tienen lectores de código genético para que sólo funcionen en manos de miembros del Adeptus Astartes.
The Bolter is a large, .998 calibre assault rifle. It has a much greater mass than most standard-issue rifles such as the Lasgun, although it is slightly shorter in length. Unlike most rifles, it lacks a stock, resulting in a grip much like a pistol's or a submachine gun's. A Space Marine's bulky Power Armour would make shouldering a stock an awkward experience, but Power Armour is most likely also able to compensate for vibrations and oscillation, making a stock redundant. Stocks are sometimes used, however, with an extended barrel and an M40 Targeter System to transform the Bolter into a sniping weapon system. These sniper Bolters, known as Stalker Pattern Bolters, are most often used with Stalker Silenced Shells.
Munición Bólter estándar
Bolter ammunition (a bolt) is primarily a solid slug. Conventional solid slugs utilise a propellant charge contained in a casing that, when ignited, forces the bullet out of the barrel. In contrast, a bolt is self-propelled; it features its own integrated solid propellant that propels the bolt at high speeds, essentially acting like a miniature rocket. The propellant itself is shaped to control the bolt's direction and speed; however, this method of rocket propulsion would normally warp the barrel due to gas pressure. The Bolter uses an ingenious method to prevent this.
As well as the rocket propellant, a tiny amount of conventional charge is also utilized. This charge is just strong enough to force the bolt out of the barrel and ignite the bolt's propellant. The rocket-propellant is carefully fused to ignite just after leaving the barrel, alleviating any possibility of pressure build-up. The bolt then accelerates away towards the target under its own power.
The standard Bolter ammunition is designed to penetrate the target and then detonate, causing immense damage to the target and leaving little opportunity for survival.
The Bolter is complex to produce and requires dedicated maintenance, which prevents it from being issued more widely throughout the Imperial Guard. Furthermore, the Space Marine warriors, or Astartes, are a breed of genetically-enhanced supersoldiers. The Chapters of the Astartes also wear massive suits of Power Armour that further enhance their control over the powerful recoil of the weapon, and aid the already prodigious skill of the individual warrior with autosense uplinks and suit-integrated targeting systems. The Bolter is simply far too heavy to be wielded effectively by the average human being or Imperial Guard soldier. The Bolter also is far more susceptible to being fouled by dirt and mishandling than the basic Lasgun issued to Imperial Guardsmen, requiring much more training to use than the Guard is ready to give the standard line trooper. The Bolter's need for physical ammunition demands far more logistical organisation than the standard Lasgun, and Astartes Chapters have been known to go through a small stockpile of rounds in a single campaign.
Over the millennia, the Bolter has been improved and changed many times. There have been hundreds of variants, but only a few have made any radical differences. All of these have the same basic features, but each have different additional features (depending on the weapon's pattern) to improve it. The current standard-issue Bolter for the Space Marines is the .998 caliber Godwyn pattern Bolter.
- Astartes Umbra Pattern.
- Ceres Pattern
- Crusade Pattern
- Filienostos Pattern
- Godwyn Pattern
- Godwyn Mark IIIa Pattern (older pattern of Bolter used by the Dark Angels Chapter)
- Godwyn-Dyath Pattern (used by the Orders Militant of the Adepta Sororitas)
- Heresy Pattern
- Locke Pattern (variant of a pattern used by the Adeptus Arbites, now most common pattern of Bolter in use in the Koronus Expanse)
- Nostra Pattern
- Perinetus Pattern "Solo" Mark II
- Phobos Pattern
- Stalker Pattern (a standard Godwyn Pattern Bolter modified with an M40 Targeter System to also serve as a Sniper Rifle)
- Ultima Pattern
- Umbra Pattern
- Umbra Ferrox Pattern
Variantes de Munición
The Standard Bolt is the standard-issue antipersonnel ammunition for the Bolter. It is designed to penetrate a target and detonate, causing horrific injuries.
- A solid-fuel rocket propellant base.
- An outer casing containing conventional charge.
- Mass-reactive fuse. Has a split-second timer to delay detonation upon impact until after the shot penetrates the target.
- Hardened diamantine penetrating tip. This allows for the bolt to penetrate most armour before detonation.
- Main Charge.
- Depleted uranium core. This is a very dense material, adding weight and thus momentum to the round when in flight. This aids in the bolt's penetration of the victim.
Munición Perforante Kraken
Kraken Penetrator Rounds are potent, more power armour-piercing rounds than the standard bolt. The uranium core is replaced by a solid adamantium core and uses a heavier main charge. Upon impact, the outer casing peels away and the high-velocity adamantium needle accelerates into the victim, where the larger detonator propels shards of super-hardened metal further into the wound. These are effective against heavily-armoured infantry.
- The main charge is increased to enable a larger explosion.
- The uranium core is replaced by a core of pure adamantium to optimize the penetration of reinforced armour.
Inferno Bolts are designed to immolate their targets and destroy them with superheated chemical fire. The uranium core is replaced with an oxy-phosphorus gel, known as Promethium. However, due to the decreased projectile mass, armour-piercing capabilities are compromised.
(It should be noted that the Thousand Sons Traitor Legion has their own similarly-named but unrelated type of Inferno Bolts, which are actually psychically-bound slugs that release arcane energies; these slugs explode with sorcerous Warp energies upon impact.)
- In this bolt, the uranium core is replaced with a special gel that ignites with oxygen.
Hellfire Bolts are designed for use against organic targets, specifically the Tyranids. The core and tip are replaced with a vial of mutagenic acid and thousands of needles. When the round enters the target's body, the vial shatters and the needles pierce the victim's flesh, pumping the acid into the target.
- In this bolt, the uranium core is replaced with a vial of mutagenic acid. The point is also replaced with a chemical substance that causes the vial to detonate once it has penetrated the enemy's armour.
Munición de Fragmentación Metal Storm
In the Metal Storm Frag Bolt, the mass-reactive fuse of the standard bolt is replaced with a proximity fuse, and the uranium core and Diamantine tip are replaced with increased high-explosives and a fragmentation casing. This means the bolt explodes when it nears an enemy, creating a lethal hail of shrapnel. This bolt is capable of inflicting casualties on multiple lightly-armoured targets, but its effectiveness is dramatically reduced when facing heavily-armoured foes like Chaos Space Marines.
- Fragmentation Casing.
- Increased Charge.
- Fragmentation Charge.
- Proximity Detector.
Munición Silenciosa Stalker
Stalker Silenced Shells are Bolter rounds with low sound signatures, meant for covert fighting. They are often used in conjunction with an M40 Targeter System, an extended barrel, and a stock to create a sniping weapon system. A gas cartridge replaces both the propellant base and main charge for silent firing, but this sacrifices muzzle velocity as a result. A solidified mercury slug replaces the mass-reactive warhead for lethality at sub-sonic projectile speed. These rounds are used when stealth and precision are required.
- Gas Cartridge.
- Solidified Mercury Slug.
- Smooth Diamantine Tip.
Psycannon Bolts are used by the Inquisition, primarily the Ordo Malleus and its Grey Knights Space Marine Chapter. They are very similar in nature to the rounds fired by their namesake, the Psycannon, and are similarly used against psychic Heretic and daemonic targets. Of all the rounds available to the Bolter, these are the most expensive, as each and every bolt is inscribed with arcane runes on a microscopic level. According to some sources the bolts derive their anti-psychic effect from being impregnated with an extremely rare negative psychic energy; the sole source of this energy is a metabolic byproduct of the Emperor of Mankind's Golden Throne. The anti-psychic nature of these rounds are not only effective at destroying daemonic targets but also highly efficient at piercing the powerful barriers created by force field generators (such as the Tau Shield Generator and the Imperium's own Iron Halo and Storm Shield).
Vengeance Round bolts were created using unstable flux core technology that makes them hazardous to use but extremely potent at penetrating through heavily armoured targets. As their name implies, these bolts were developed by the Imperium specifically to target the Chaos Space Marines of the Traitor Legions.
Dragonfire Bolts are hollow-shelled bolts that explode with a gout of superheated gas that can eliminate the value of cover for enemy troops.
As well as the different types of ammunition available for the weapon, there have also been several different types of magazines. The standard magazine for the Bolter is the Sickle Magazine.
- Sickle Magazine: The standard-issue magazine, seen on most Bolter patterns. The magazine's shape is slightly curved to take up less space. Carries 20 to 30 bolts.
- Straight Magazine: A straight version of the sickle magazine. Holds less ammunition (only 10 to 20 bolts), but is easier to load in more intense situations.
- Drum Magazine: Drum magazines are a relatively rare sight in the 41st Millenium. This is due to their unreliability; drum magazines have an unfortunate tendency to jam. However, drums can carry 40, 60 or even 100 bolts, negating the need to reload as often. Despite the frequent jamming, they still brook some favor with local Hive Gangs or planetary defense militia. They are also frequently seen on Storm Bolters or in brutal assaults, where running empty in a firefight can mean certain death.
- Belt Feed: Some troops forgo using magazines at all, preferring to feed the bolts directly into the firing chamber using a linked belt. Because the belt is exposed to the elements, it is frequently clogged with dirt or dust. This can, like the Drum Mag, lead to jamming, and is rarely used within the Imperium, although it is very commonly used by the Chaos Space Marines of the Ruinous Powers.
[Nota: Space Marine Heavy Bolters have the ammunition belt protected by a tough, flexible feed chute.]
- Duplus X: This type of magazine is quite popular amongst local planetary law enforcement or Hive Gangs. It involves two standard Sickle Magazines which are attached together by some means, usually a band of cloth or tape (similar to the "ready-mags" of ancient Terra). This means when the weapon has to be reloaded, the user can simply flip the magazines around and insert the loaded magazine. This type is rarely produced officially, usually being "manufactured" by those who utilise it.
Extraído y traducido de Wikihammer 40K UK.
- Imperial Armour II.
- Warhammer 40,000: Armamento (Ediciones 2ª y 4ª).